The relationship between Students Inappropriate Behavior and Academic Performance December 6, 2018 – Posted in: Buy Cheap Essay Online

The relationship between Students Inappropriate Behavior and Academic Performance

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

This literature review is focused on the relationship between student behavior and their academic performance. It will base the study on various key theorists like Fredrick Jones (2000), Albert Bandura (1997 and William Glasser (1997) who among many others described how behavior is acquired and how it is controlled. It will also look at theories like classical in the same account that will be discussed in the literature review. These scholars argue that the behavior of students is determined by their environment and the teacher plays a significant role in ensuring that the classroom is well managed, thus, achievement is high. In the flow of the literature review, this analysis will also address factors like Students’ inappropriate behaviors which include disrespect, defaulting assignments, imitation of other people’s works, and passive participation. It will also discuss available district policy infrastructure, the performance of the students and how to manage these challenges. Management of the challenge aspects that will be discussed includes creating a comfortable learning environment, warning the students, and elaboration of the motive of goals.

Student inappropriate behaviors in relation to the learning environment

Gentillucci and Muto (2017) argued that student behavior and academic achievement are highly related, thus, management of student behavior is vital by the entire school community and society. Students can exhibit behavior problems like bullying, getting involved in violent behavior, and other minor misconducts that negatively impact on the learning environment leading to poor performance, fear and frustration in the culture of the entire learning institution. Akey (2016) agreed with Gentillucci and Muto (2017) arguments and also stated that when such circumstances occur, the school environment can become unsafe because disruptive behavior not only impacts on the students negatively but also the teachers and the entire staff of that institution. For example, according to McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014), students can disrupt lessons making it impossible for teachers to continue teaching. Also, according to Sattar and Ghulam (2012), teachers may feel totally burned out when trying to control and teach in such an environment, thus, leave the profession. Li and Derick, (2013) argued that one of the most effective skills that teachers should possess is managing classroom behavior. Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea, (2016) agreed with these sentiments and also argued that the most effective way to eliminate inappropriate behavior is through preventing it from occurring in the first place of mitigating it as early as it is discovered. He also argued that some of ways of eliminating and controlling inappropriate behavior in students include student involvement, providing the necessary support structures, encouraging students to form behavior improvement organizations, encouraging them to get involved in self-reflection and encouraging them to get involved in formulating and implementing school policies. Gerald and Helller, (2015), agreed with the above sentiments from the above findings and also argued that positive behavior management refers to all proactive policies and plans which are focused on preventing and intervening for appropriate behavior. Appropriate behavior can be cultivated through encouraging productive relationships between the teachers, students, parents, and the school administration.

Developing human relationships in class environment

According to Sugai, and Horner, (2002), human beings rate acceptable behavior using social norms and regulate the same using social control parameters. Bradshaw, Mitchell, and Leaf (2010) argued that in sociology, these behavior has no meaning if it is not being directed to other people. Therefore, it is a basic human action which can be used, in part to, diagnose disorders in children. Moral values and how people behave highly depends on common, or uncommon, usual or not usual, acceptable or unacceptable behavior of other people (Anderson et al. 2004). Behavior differs based on the external environment people are raised (Betherhold and Hoover 2000). In this case, academic achievement is highly influenced by demographic and psychological factors. Sugai, and Horner (2002) agreed with these views and goes ahead to argue that the human brain has the ability to tap into the environment to understand and absorb the surrounding whether positive or negative. Once children understand their environment, they develop a sense of mastery towards it and then develop feelings of self-worth, independence, and confidence and these factors are basics that construct their personalities and can predict their happiness, success, and their future life. The classroom is students’ immediate environment, thus, children have mastered it, developed feeling for it and developed self-worth, confidence and independence in this space. According to Sugai and Homer (2002), when handled carefully, this environment predicts a child’s happiness and success. There are various theories of classroom behavior and management which enlighten on student behavior. Each theory has a different psychological and epistemological background. For example, Albert Bandura (1997) developed the social learning theory which is based on personality (Gerald  Heller 2015). According to Gerald and Heller (2015), Bandura argued that people learn from one another through observation, imitation, and modeling. Such learners are attentive, have a good memory and are motivated to behave appropriately or inappropriately (Betherhold andHoover, 2000). Therefore, classroom instruction is vital as it determines the future of the students. This also suggests that there exists a strong relationship between classroom behavior and academic achievement. Markwell (2017) also suggested that sstudents who exhibit positive behavior score higher scores compared to those that exhibit negative behaviors. According to Fredrricks and Blumenfeld (2014), the relationship between academic achievements and inappropriate behavior has been studied for a long time now, thus, it is a recognized phenomenon. Willms (2013), argued that poor academic performance is highly related to frequency, persistence, and seriousness of uncivil behavior among students and according to Markwell (2017), students with lower academic achievements have greater emotional and behavioral challenges.

The DeLisi and Vaughn’s behavior theory and academic achievement

McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014) and Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016) argue that the DeLisi and Vaughn’s theory explains how behavior predicts academic achievements. According to this theory, temperament which is associated with stable (an inborn tendency) that enables a person experience the environment can help regulate how one reacts to the stimuli. The elements of stability comprises of effortful control which is the capability of inhibiting dominant response in favor of doing a subdominant response and negative emotionality where an individual can show emotions like frustration, fear, being sad, and uncomfortable. In a classroom environment, temperament can show itself as behavior problems, which impacts negatively on academic outcomes like how ready a student is for school, the anticipated school grades, how they plan to complete their college admission examinations, and school dropouts. Children with low self-esteem tend to have poor work habits unlike those students with a higher self-esteem. Also, children with lowered effortful control fall out with their teachers easily unlike those with a high effortful control because they have an unfruitful relationship with their teachers. Therefore, students who have good discipline frequently do well in their education unlike those with a high IQ. However, Stephen (2014), argued that school settings can either enhance or affect academic performance especially for students with lower temperaments. For example, according to Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016) who also agreed with the arguments of Stephen (2014) also stated that emotional support from teachers is essential because it helps regulate the relationship, thus, children can pay more attention and achieve high scores in their education. Schunk (1999), supports their views and he argued that temperament and behavior problems do not affect academic achievement, rather it is the externalizing and internalizing behavior profiles that impact on achievements of students.

Do externalizing and internalizing behavior profiles affect academic achievements of students?

According to Schunk (1999), externalizing and internalizing behavioral profiles are different activities. Some of the characteristics of eternalizing behavior include defiance, disrupting, being aggressive, impulsive, and other antisocial behaviors. Internalizing behavior, on the other hand, is characterized by withdrawal, dysphasia, and anxiety. All these have an immense influence on academic achievement though according to Akey (2016), the evidence is still mixed especially when studying the achievements of students who are struggling with emotional or behavioral conditions and are facing challenges when reading, calculating mathematics, and writing language. According to a research by McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014), children with emotional/behavioral problems had deficits in calculating mathematics and this problem got worse with time because the results showed that adolescents performed badly and scored below average in mathematics. McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014) also carried out another research and did a Meta-analysis on 26 students. The research revealed that anxiety, depression and various internalizing behaviors were highly associated with academic failure but there are other factors like gender and race, which contribute to student misbehavior and poor academic achievement.

Race and Gender

Even though Akey (2016) and Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016) argued that externalizing and internalizing characteristics of behavior greatly impacts on the academic outcome, there are other issues which impact on academic achievement and behavior problems. McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014) and Li and Derick (2013) argue that race is a significant issue that also contributes to the academic failure of students. For example, Li and Derick (2013) carried a research on the educational achievement of the African and White Americans and there was an alarming gap in their academic achievement. The gap was attributed to various factors which included but not limited to: African American students have for a long time being excluded from school because they are given suspensions. Also, in their class environments, they were provided with lesser learning opportunities than their White counterparts. Suspension among African American students is linked to behavior problems leading to school dropout, thus, lower academic achievements. The African American school dropout rate is much higher compared to the White American students. High dropout is directly associated with behavior problems though other scholars like racial discrimination play part in their limited educational opportunities. However, Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016) argued that the high school dropout rate among African Americans students is mainly as a result of racial discrimination and not behavior problems. Paul, Palmer, Kuh and Hannah (2016) argued that African American students drop out of school because they have behavior problems which impact on their academic achievements and are mostly recommended for special education because they are suffering from emotional disturbance and intellectual challenges. Therefore, this proves that behavior problems impact academic outcomes, especially for African Americans. On the other hand, Sattar and Ghulam (2012) conducted a research which revealed that White students had a problem paying attention and this is associated with low academic achievements.

Gender

Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016) on the other hand argued that educational achievements and behavior patterns between males and females are different. Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016), note that over the years, males have been performing well in mathematics and science. However, recently, according to McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014), female students have been outperforming the male students in the same subjects and in areas of literacy. Girls also start going to school after they have achieved literacy capabilities unlike the boys. McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014) also argued that learning and problematic behaviors among children explained 70% of the difference in performance in literacy and girls are rated better than boys. However, boys have a higher rate of grade retention, suspension, and expulsion than girls. Williams (2013) agreed with these sentiments and argued that boys are over-represented in disability groups which contain emotional and behavioral problems.

Examples of students Inappropriate Behaviors

According to Kurlans et al. (1996) and Landrum et al. (2003), there are mannerisms that hamper a student’s success in the academic discourse. Therefore, academic inappropriate mannerism is a disruptor of a learners’ success. There is a case example of learners’ inappropriate behaviors from both the onsite student’s lesson and online or open distance learning. The ultimate realization as per DiGennaroet al. (2007) is that the factors hampering the learners’ academic performance are as a result of the inability to control the person’s characters associated with wrong or poor mannerism. Additionally, O’Brien et al. (2008), postulates that the students ‘inappropriate behaviors, together with other additional cognitive factors lead to poor performances among students. Hence, it is prudent enough as a learner to minimize the inappropriate behaviors both on onsite learning or online classes since it will affect once overall performance.

Examples of Inappropriate behavior

Morgan et al. (2014) gives examples of the students’ inappropriate behaviors in a class setup that are not encouraged. Anderson et al. (1994), argued that the overall inappropriate class room discussion includes but not limited to lateness, inability to submit the assignments within the stipulated time as prescribed by the tutor or the professor. Moreover, there is some misconduct such as copying other students’ assignment due to lack of confidence or even sluggishness developed by the student. Laziness is the overall character that alienates to poor performance when a student is assessed in the examinations or assignments. When one is lazy, a student will not be able to comply with the few school routines that are believed or supposed to gear a student towards potentiating the class or schools’ testing goals at large. Furthermore, once a student develops lazy attitude towards attending classes, preparation towards the exams may be insufficient leading to failure.

In addition to the onsite learning, the electronic or online learning comes alongside some challenges that bring about inappropriate behaviors among the learners. It’s clear that onsite or face to face communication classroom is easy to manage unlike the online classes. According to Atkinson, Morten, and Sue (1979) the online classes contributes misbehaving traits among the learners which then jeopardize their academic achievements (Tsouloupas, Carson, and Matthews, 2014). Some case studies have discovered some inappropriate behaviors such late submission of the results, evading classes or absenteeism, copying of other students’ assignment and many more examples (Stuber-McEwen, Wiseley, and Hoggatt, 2009).  These challenges are similarly found in the junior schools, senior, colleges, middle colleges and university education. In fact, Selwyn (2008) confirms that the challenges are more prominent to the colleges and universities offering online classes.

Do inappropriate behavior cause students to fail?

A according to Hard et al. (2006), a tutor, lecturer, or a professor may have specific goal of testing the students but because of prevailing inappropriate behaviors a student may fail to achieve the desired goal. Therefore, the overall suggestions postulate that there are mannerisms developed by the students that are inappropriate and they translate to failure during examinations and completion of assignments (Hughes et al. 2006).In this case, the research terminologies of inappropriate behaviors are generally referred to academic incivility.

According to Fredrricks and Blumenfeld, (2014), high academic achievement and behavioral competence are two major indicators which show the success of a student. They show that there is a significant relationship between behavior and the educational success of the student and thus there is an important need to develop effective intervention programs. A common developmental antecedent holds that academic achievement and behavioral problems are influenced by genetic, interpersonal factors, and environmental antecedents (Fredrricks and Blumenfeld, 2014). Other scholars hold that it is casual relations and developed three models which are used to explain the casual associations between school performance and uncivil behavior among students. One of the models is that underachievement in academic activities leads to development of inappropriate behavior. According to Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea, (2016), low achievements in academics leads a student to have low self esteem, become uncommitted to schooling activities which culminates into frustration caused by challenging learning environment which then leads to delinquency and antisocial behavior. The second model is according to Nooriddin and Shariffah, (2014) which confirmed that problematic behavior precedes and in turn causes educational underachievement. According to this model, the amount of time students are engaged in meaningful learning activities actually reduces their time which could have been spent in behaving inappropriately. Students who already have acquired inappropriate behavior develop negative relationships with their teachers and peers and this makes them develop a negative attitude towards school and do not put a lot of effort in their leaning activities.

The third model is that casual relationships that exist between school performance and uncivil behavior are bidirectional and not unidirectional. This means that when students are poor learners they become frustrated and their antisocial behavior increases. When anti social behavior increases, the learning process is disrupted. High academic achievement is associated with good behavior. However, Akey (2016) argued that there are students who were involved in antisocial behavior but still scored high in their academics. This means that high academic achievement is not always associated with proper behavior of the student.

Incivility among learners is generally an obstacle to academic success and according to Forni (2002) and other contemporary authors; civility is considered as a positive and admirable human attribute. Sistare (2004) suggests that civility is an essential factor which is required in listening, tolerance and conversing or discussing the various opinions without personal attacks. Subsequently, human civility is considered a form of respect for variety and also treating people with a lot of vested dignity. On the other hand, Clark (2008b) shows that being civil is associated with politeness, descent and respectful. Conversely, incivility is the actions or speech which is discourteous, impolite or rude. Furthermore, Hernandez and Fister (2001) stated that uncivil mannerism is the ability to be intentionally rebellious, antagonistic, disrespectful or defiant of certain proposals or an event. Also, Anderson and Pearson (1999) suggests that uncivil person’s behavior is characterized by being rude, impolite, discourteous and displaying the inability to regard others (Clark, 2008b). Feldman (2001, p.137) defines incivility in a classroom setup as the action that bars or interferes with the cooperation and the harmonious learning environment in a class setup. In addition to the definition, Nilson and Jackson (2004) extended the definition by conjugating the in and out misconducts among the learners. Therefore, Feldman (2001) summarizes the students’ academic incivility behaviors into being discourteous or being rude which eventually disrupts the lesson environment. The students’ misconducts are intentional acts which proceed to disruption and impeding the learning and teaching session of other learners (Morrissete 2001). In a nut shell, the word inappropriate behavior is deemed as synonymous of the term incivility.

Possible causes of inappropriate behavior

According to Li and Derick (2013) to understand how to deal with inappropriate behavior, there is great need to understand their origin. He also argued that there are two major causes that cause them. There are those factors which are contingent on the student situation and those that are structural to the course.

Contingent on student situations

According to Sattar and Ghulam (2012): Schunk (1999) and Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016), students can exhibit inappropriate behavior because they have health problems, they are adjusting to a new environment, they are adjusting to a new physical or psychosocial development which could include immaturity and self-esteem or are experiencing challenges or facing difficulties in their education. These factors are not easily controlled in the class environment and instructors are encouraged to refer the students to the appropriate support services like health care, dean of students, academic development office, counseling, and psychological service. Sattar and Ghulam, (2012) also argue that cultural and generational factors also contribute to behaviors that student’s exhibit in school. Schools in the United Stated have a homogenous culture and thus there are great expectations that students should be informed on similar basic academic values and virtues. Students from other cultures who do not understand the homogenous culture in the US may not understand classroom expectations and due to cross-cultural issues, they may behave in an inappropriate way without realizing it. Also Markwell (2017), and McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014) agreed with these sentiments and also argue that the millennial generation has come with a whole new set of values and when interacted with the previous generation creates friction and misunderstanding. Various scholars then developed a number of behavioral theories which can help the teacher understand behavior, their origin and how they can handle them.

Structural to the course causes: Some of the inappropriate behavior can be caused by the facilitators’ behavior or the structure of the courses. Boice (1998) conducted a research to understand classroom incivilities and revealed that many teachers and their students did not agree on what is perceived as an inappropriate behavior but they all agreed that a few egregious situations can be understood as inappropriate behavior (McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry, 2014). The research also revealed that young instructors faced the same challenges as the older instructors when it came to controlling class behavior and thus the experience of the instructor has nothing to do with the kind of manners students’ exhibit. There are two major factors that predict classroom inappropriate behavior. Firstly, it is the choice of motivation can greatly interfere with the students’ behavior, some teachers choose negative motivators like instilling fear, guilt, and embarrassment and this makes the students aggressive and exhibits incivilities unlike for the teachers who encourage and talk to the students. The second determinant one can use to predict classroom incivilities is immediacy behaviors which can include verbal and non-verbal signs of friendliness. When teachers show immediacy behaviors, they are likely going to experience more incivilities. If students know that the teacher has disengaged self from the course and does not share in their learning experiences, they also disengage and start showing attendant problematic incivilities. Some other inappropriate behaviors that accompany immediacy behaviors include the perception of the worth of teaching, clarity, work for the organization and pacing through the syllabus.

Management of the challenge

Behavioral theories

Markwell (2017) argued that there are many behavioral theories which help understand the nature of behavior in students. These theories were first developed in the 20th century and currently, most of them are used by teachers to manage behavior in class. John Watson and BF. Skinner is the major behaviorist theorists who believed that the study of consciousness, the mind and the complexity of the mental state of people was a waste of time because one can tell what an individual is thinking just by the look on the face.

Classical conditioning: The first behavioral theory is classical conditioning which was developed using Pavlov’s dogs. Gerald and Heller (2015) argued that students in a class environment can have a number of reactions like having butterflies, headache or even vomiting before a presentation, enjoying walking into ones’ favorite class or even have anxiety before talking to the teacher. All these are classical conditioning factors. Teachers and the class environment have a tremendous impact on the behaviors of a student both emotionally, and psychologically. This means that teachers should be experts in handling the behavior of students in a class especially by setting a conducive atmosphere inside the class environment before writing the tests and providing support systems. Markwell (2017) agreed with these views and also argued that some students do not mean to fail, but their failure is as a result of the anxiety they feel every time they are needed to take a test. This may take a lot of time for students to overgrow it because there are emotional and psychological factors that are involved but can be defeated when teachers purpose to use productive classical conditioning strategies. This is because human beings perceive people are self-correcting communicating systems who are able to modify their behavior and in the long run respond to stimuli successfully. To apply classical conditioning in class, Akey (2016) confirmed that teachers can associate good behavior with a form of reinforcement or pleasant events to ensure that the good behavior sticks and bad behavior goes. For example, according to Li and Derick (2013), teachers can support their students to risk undertaking events that make them anxious and go through them slowly with the help of the teacher. Finally, after understanding students and knowing which subjects make them anxious; teachers can design time to present it gradually to the students when they are more relaxed and ready to learn.

Operant conditioning: Operant conditioning is yet another behavioral theory which according to Gerald and Heller (2015), bases its argument on the consequences that an individual receives after indulging inappropriate or inappropriate behavior will determine whether they will repeat it or not. If the consequences are positive, then, the behavior is more likely to be repeated. Gentillucci and Muto (2017) gives an example and argued that when a student raises a hand and gets called on to answer a question, that is positive reinforcement and chances are that the child will raise the hand again. In this kind of behaviorism, timing is of the essence because students will learn and keep the behavior even when the reinforcement is stopped.

How can teachers and other stakeholders encourage positive behavior

Many times, however, teachers face problems with their students because of inappropriate behavior. To understand their behavior, the teacher needs to understand the antecedents which include all the factors that have made a child behave in such a particular manner. This is because, inappropriate behavior can be caused by various factors which include acting up, transitioning from one developmental stage to another, and even their social economic background. Punishing the student without considering the origin of inappropriate behavior may not bear positive fruits. This is because Fredrricks and Blumenfeld (2014) and McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014) argue that understanding the origin of inappropriate behavior is vital so as to develop an appropriate intervention for the student. Fredrricks and Blumenfeld (2014) argued that there are various ways that teachers can use to deal with undesirable behavior but they highly depend on the cause of the inappropriate behavior. Firstly, the teacher can practice satiation where students can be left at liberty to indulge in the inappropriate behavior till they outgrow it. This is normally done when the inappropriate behavior is associated with growth and developmental stages. A teacher can also use reprimanding which happens where the teacher engages the student in a talk privately and warns or scolds the student. If a teacher reprimands a student in the face of others, the student might get embarrassed and set the tone for more undesirable behavior in the class from other students (McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry 2014). Also, teachers or the administration can decide to use response cost where the teacher removes punishment and students are rewarded points, checkmarks and stars for an impressive performance. The teacher can also take away the tokens once the student gets involved in negative behavior. Social isolationism is also a very effective way that teachers can use to stop or mitigate undesirable behavior (Nooriddin and Shariffah 2014). Social isolation takes place when a teacher places a student in an empty room that is not interesting. The stay should be shorter for younger children. Once the negative behavior stops, the teacher can bring the student back to the classroom to join the rest. This kind of behavior management strategy is used in kindergarten and elementary pupils and has productive results (Nooriddin and Shariffah 2014).   Lastly is the Logical consequence is when punishment follows inappropriate behavior immediately and this then fits the crime. For example, Gerald and Heller, (2015) argue that when students make a mess on the classroom desk, then they are supposed to be told to clean up immediately. Therefore, logical consequences are very effective.

According to Sorcinelli (2002) and Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016) there are four major principles which teachers can observe to mitigate incivilities. These four principles are broad and every one of them can be effectively used by instructors to come up with concrete strategies.

Firstly, the instructor needs to define expectations right from the beginning: According to Akey (2016) and McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014), students’ behavior can effectively be controlled if they are taken for an orientation of how they have to behave in class to avoid or mitigate inappropriate behavior. Teachers need to define their policies at the beginning of the syllabus and clearly articulate the policies and rationalize them using a respectful tone. The first day in class is immensely important for the teacher because they can use such opportunities to create a favorable working and productive environment. This can be achieved by teachers educating the students on the class policies, the syllabus, and model of behaviors that are desired.  All students should be allowed to participate in making the rules and policies in the class environment. When they get involved in developing these rules, the students are held responsible for their own word. For example, Akey (2016) argued that students can be encouraged to identify some of the behaviors in class that is distracting and not conducive to their learning and made to give suggestions on how to combat those mentioned behaviors.

Secondly, there is a decrease in anonymity: Akey, (2016) argued that large classes can be challenging to deal with in terms of management and this can give students space to engage in an uncivil behavior because of the depersonalized atmosphere. Teachers in this situation should do their best to build connections will all students. Nooriddin and Shariffah (2014) agreed with these sentiments and gives an example that, there is need to use the names of the students, request a photo roster which will help the teacher associate names and the faces. He goes on to argue that the first week of the class should be enough for the teacher to have memorized most names and then start engaging them on a one on one with them by engaging them in small talks. According to Fredrricks and Blumenfeld (2014), these small talks may include asking about the weekend, homework and other student interest topic. If possible, the teachers can schedule lunches with groups of students so as to get time to learn them on a personal level. Teachers should also take advantage of their office hours to interact with the members of a large class scheduling meeting of students and helping them in their areas of need

Thirdly, the teacher shall seek feedback from the students: Akey (2016) argued that students can engage in an uncivil behavior because of the instructors’ incivilities. Several scholars including (Gentillucci and Muto 2017; McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry 2014; Nooriddin and Shariffah 2014) agreed with Akey (2016) who also argue that there are instructors who are disorganized, come to class late, they are rude when speaking to students and interrupt students when they are speaking. Feedback from students will help an instructor learn how students look at an instructor.

Fourthly, the instructor should encourage active learning: The instructors should ensure that they engage students in meaningful learning activities which will be beneficial to their performance and learning outcomes. These activities can also be helpful because they will help build a students’ respect towards the teacher and will highly determine their behavior in class (McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry, 2014). Classes that use active learning produces students who are responsible and come to class prepared, they pay more attention and feel responsible for their own learning (Nooriddin and Shariffah, 2014).

Students Behavior and Support systems in District policy infractions

According to the District Policy Infractions, students’ behavior varies depending on the linking aspects. However, no matter the linking aspects, the fundamental goal should aim at providing safe, healthy and secure learning environment (Sugar, and Horner, 2002). The district education policies demand that the support systems in educational institutions be responsible for mainstreaming discipline and behaviors. The support systems in matters concerning the discipline of students should include the Dean of Discipline of state departments,  nursing staffs,  school social workers, students support groups and prevention and intervention groups. Additionally, there are educational policies and regulations that govern the students’ disciplines in school (Bradshaw, Mitchell, and Leaf, 2010). It is also in recognition that the school developed policies governing the discipline of students’ are documented and contained in the written rules (Lewis, Butler, Bonner III, and Joubert, 2010).  The district policy infraction officers are also mandated to conduct a patrol to ensure that the discipline and adherence of the written rules are in accordance with the expectations. The written rules and regulations are expected to be operational in every school as expected without interfering with the primary goal of the school and the culture of learning.

Expected Appropriate Behavior among the Students

The District Policy Infractions requires that there should be written rules and regulations that govern the routine duties of the students. When rules are addressed accordingly, follow up should be done by the teachers (Skiba, 2000). The rules governing the conduct of the students are further delegated to the school board of management. This implies that the board of management oversees the school disciplines on behalf of the district policy infraction. The school board of management provides and scribbles the rules and regulations that govern the school, which should not be converse to those of the district p olicy infractions jurisdictions. All the learners need to comply with the school rules and regulations. The students also pursue their courses as they observe the jurisdiction of the law and most importantly submit to the requirements of their teachers (Higbee, Schultz, and Sanford, 2011).

District policy infractions also advised that every educational institution should have an appropriate education protocol and that all students who desire to pursue a course should submit to it. In addition, there is a certain age for any schooling program. They are captured under vast legislative enactments. The overall laws that govern the discipline of students suggest that a student should be disciplined, should not be suspended, should not be transferred unwillingly, or the school shall not recommend expulsion not unless the indiscipline is superintendent (Eitle, and Eitle, 2004). In fact, the principal or the board of management shall establish the violation of students’ code of conduct. The district policy infraction establishes ways of disciplining the students in case of the gross misconducts (Akey 2016). Furthermore, the relevant bodies determine occasions of students’ expulsion or suspension. The district policing suggests the following misconducts among the learners that impacts negatively on their performances (McCabe, Treviño, and Butterfield, 2001). They include cheating in examination, plagiarizing a fellows’ work, malicious tampering of the schools properties, unacceptable collaboration, classroom disturbances (Perry, 2010). Thus, the personal misconducts that makes learners to fail includes, personal verbal aggression or physical aggressiveness.

Challenges and Management of Inappropriate classroom Behaviors

Despite the challenges associated with the problems of inappropriate behaviors, educationists have come up with the remedies to mitigate them. Furthermore, the strategies have gone extra miles to establish the remedies that are distinctive-the online and onsite misbehaviors. Vardiand Weitz (2003) concluded that upon the management of the challenges brought about by the inappropriate behaviors. In a nutshell, it is jurisprudence to manage the various inappropriate behaviors brought about by the students. Various theories have been developed to give teachers a help in managing the classroom environment. For example, Fredrick Jones developed the theory of non-adversarial method where the teacher helps students to learn self-control. In this theory, teachers are encouraged to use appropriate body language, introduce the incentives system, assist students in their daily learning activities and help them control themselves.

William Glasser (1997) on the other hand developed the reality and Choice theory which confirmed that students should have the self-awareness to ensure that they take full responsibility and make their decisions about learning and the kind of behavior they want to maintain in class (Perry, 2010). Students should be given an opportunity to choose their own curriculum and rules in class so that it will be easy to gain ownership of their own learning activities. Once they own their own learning activities, they will acquire pride when participating and thus have a higher self-esteem and greater levels of cognition (Markwell, 2017). Edward Ford (1994) developed the Responsible Thinking Process which confirmed teachers how to teach their students to develop responsibility for their own lives and respect for others. Students taught using this theory know how to achieve their goals without interfering with others. According to (Perry, 2010), these students respect others. Jean Piaget (1983) developed the constructivist learning theory which focuses on the cognitive development of students because as they develop, they become responsible individuals. Lee and Marlene Canter (1976) developed the Assertive Discipline which encourages teachers to have rules and behavior expectations (Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea, 2016): (Gentillucci and Muto, 2017). Teachers should give students fair treatment and consequences in case they break the clearly stated rules. Teachers need to have a firm voice and maintain an eye contact and are recommended for correcting bad student behavior (Vardiand Weitz,  2003).  Therefore, onsite and online misbehavior of learners can be managed through a series of integrated strategies using many theories like the ones discussed above. Additionally, the tactics of managing the students are dependent on the lecturer or professor handling the lesson Bru, Stephens, andTorsheim, (2002). The ultimate aim of the manager should be to better the operations of the organization. Hence the overall manager should be effective and efficient so as the student’s performance is reinforced. Also, another way to manage the class mischievous and petty students’ behaviors is through being strict and constantly advising the learners (Tinkelman, 2012). Of all the challenging misbehavior is the physical or verbal aggression. Verbal aggression entails quarreling, attacking, gossiping, and teasing of fellow students. The physical aggressive behaviors include attacking others, sticking, vandalizing properties and pushing other fellow learners (Sun, andShek, 2012). These problems can be best managed through, regulating what is going on in the class and also through involving the patents if such behaviors are spotted.

The general solutions to managing the challenges according to Evertson (1994) involve self-driven zeal of the teacher. A teacher who has students at heart will always have time and strategies to address the challenges facing their learners. The remedies to the changes are; sparing time so as to listen to the students, developing a good rapport with the students, allowing voice and choice that is appropriate, sanction legitimate consistent power, acknowledging positive contributions from the students (FHKPS, 2013). Additionally, Watson and Ecken(2003) suggests that creating a friendly and conducive environment of the learners also promotes the reduction of the students’ misbehaviors that would otherwise reduce their overall performances. As a teacher, the misbehaviors can be remedied by minimizing stress among the learners since tensions within the class can lead to low self-esteem, lack of cooperation, boredom, fatigue or lack of agility among the learners (McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry, 2014).

District policy infractions policies and practices

The district policy infractions develop policies which impact on students’ experiences in a learning institution. Policies and practices normally include the participation of parents and the school. When making these policies and practices, these organizations promote safe working and learning environment which encourage both physical and psychological development for both teachers and the students. For example, Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea, (2016) argue that a safe environment for learning ensures thatphysical hazards have been removed, there is a clear communication that the students and staff are assured of their safety, that all the people in the learning institution should show respect for each other and that everyone is needed to follow the stipulated rules and regulations.

Aculture of had work:the district policy infractions also advice that the school environment should be developed to be a place where students can be cognitively challenged in solving dificult tasks and succeeding on their woen after they have been taught by their teachers. Tackling challenging tasks will help students felt proud of their achievements and the teachers should develop a reward system to appreciate them for their hard work.Homework and grading policies in schools should not make demoralize students.

Success oriented: District policy infractions should develop policies and practices that will help studens master their curriculum and also develop their potentials and abilities. For example, if the policies developed seek to only punish, suspend and undermine them, students are likely going to feel demoralized, develop low self esteem and low confidence. A good environment is the one which encourages students to participate in leadership poitions, accepts them as part of the top elite group in the community and be ambitious to take advantage of the available learning oportunities and grow their potential.

A culture of respect and responsiveness: a learning environment needs to be a place where there is a developed culture that is religiously observed and with respect. According to a research conducted by  (Fredrricks & Blumenfeld 2014) most high school students revealed that they felt least important in their learning institutions because at many times, their teachers have always kept them waiting, they are sometimes summoned to the administators’ office for reasons that they cannot fully explain, and since they are teenagers, it is hard for anyone to believe what they are saying even when they are speaking the truth. Fredrricks and Blumenfeld, (2014) proposed that once teenages feel they are not important in the learning institution, they may indulge in inapproprate behaviour. Policies and practices formulated by district policy infractions should ensure that the environment teenagers are respected as human beings and are valued because they are full participants of the learning institution.

Student leadership and making of decisions

According to McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014), students should be encouraged to particpate in school leadership and also help in defining the culture of the learning institution. Leadership and decision making should be a teamwork effort between the elites and the entire student fraternity. The school structure should be one which provides many leadership opportunities so that the students can practice their leadership skills. For example, Li and Derick (2013) argue that all students should be made to participate in making decisions regarding their homework guidelines, can be encouraged to serve as lab assistants in science labaratories, and also lend a hand to teachers in helping the younger students in the school premise. Making decisions together also determines the kind of policies that will be developed and the rules that the students and the teachers will comply to. If they participate in developing these policies and rules, high chances are that they will live by them willingly.

Minimal competition: Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016) argue that even though competitiveness has over the years been discouraged in learning institutions, it is wise for all institutions to create policies which establish competitiveness into the fabric of the school.

The role of school stakeholders in the behavior and academic achievements of the students

Stakeholders in the behavior and academic achievement of students most importantly are the students themselves, their parents, the educational administration personnel and even the staff. All these people need to play a significant part in ensuring that students achieve their goals and grow to become responsible people in society. Some of the key roles of stakeholders in a students academic and behavioral well being is shaping their vision of academic success and impressive behavior, ensuring that they cultivate their leadership skills and activate them, create a hospitable and conducive learning environment, manage people and data and also share and support the students (Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea, 2016).

The role of the student towards appropriate behavior and academic achievement: According to Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016), there is an inseparable relationship between the school context, student behavior, and their academic achievement. He also argued that engagements and motivation are critical elements in students’ good behavior and academic achievement. Engagement includes behaviors like persistence, effort, and attention while attitudes are behaviors like motivation, good learning values, enthusiasm, success, and interest. Engaged students, therefore, are in various activities inside and outside their classrooms making them more successful. These students are more likely to exhibit curiosity and thus are anxious to know more and this is a positive emotional response to learning and school work. Gerald and Heller (2015), agreed to their observations and also argue that motivation and engagement ensure that students learn more and retain more because they engage in more learning activities. Students should always feel competent and confident of their ability to score high and be successful in their academics. When students have a positive attitude towards their efforts, they achieve more unlike those who lack the ability to recognize this capability because they will not work hard to succeed especially when they are completing class tasks. Li and Derick (2013) also support these views and add that students should understand that it takes dedication and commitment to be successful and also believe that they can make it. If a student does not have the confidence that they can make it will have challenges to even attempt to complete an assignment and thus low educational achievements. According to Gerald and Heller (2015), the beliefs of the student regarding their abilities, competence and their expectations are linked to the extent of student engagement and their state of emotional level which can destabilize with their capabilities that enables them to achieve their academic goals. Students who don’t believe in their ability in academics may fear to engage themselves in learning activities because they are anxious to reveal their ignorance. They fear that their educational engagements will result in embarrassing and humiliating moments. From the above arguments, it is undeniable that students play a significant role in their own academic achievements. Firstly, they need to be psychologically prepared, have developed achievable goals and also be ready to explore by indulging in various learning activities. Students who perform well have an intrinsic motivation to do so and thus, do not need external motivation to not only work hard but also develop the appropriate behaviors which support positive learning atmosphere and high academic achievements.

The role of the school context in supporting student success and appropriate behavior:

According to Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016), variables in educational contests are vital in sustaining appropriate academic abilities and high engagement in school. Meaningful and challenging learning environments encourage engagement and persistence. In this sense, according to Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016), there are three contextual factors that merit attention and they include Sense of belonging, clear, high and have consistent expectations, and Meaningful and challenging educational surrounding. Students can significantly be motivated if the learning environment is made up of supportive networks of relationships. A motivating and encouraging environment in school increases the perception of how students look at their teachers, family, and friends as supportive structures in their learning activities. If a school has invested in structures that engage students, they promote their sense of belonging especially when they personalize instruction and develop a supportive, caring and social environment. It becomes better especially when adults show interest in the learning achievements of the student inside and outside of the school premises. Gentillucci and Muto (2017) supports these arguments and also argued that students who have reported that they experience an environment of care because they are well supported recorded positive attitudes in their academic achievements and thus impressive academic achievements. They also reveal that they are satisfied with their schools and thus engaged to attend school more often learn more and get deeply engaged.

Clear, high and have consistent expectations: An environment that insists on high, clear and consistent expectations also contribute to support a child’s self-confidence, beliefs in their efforts and their engagement which can lead to high academic achievements. According to Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016), in schools where they have set high-performance levels, high expectations and standards record high numbers of great performance. Standards and expectations are achievable and clear to motivate students to fully engage in their educational goals. Set standards challenge students and allow them to experience competence and when they have achieved them, they feel accomplished.

Meaningful and challenging educational surrounding: Students are able to get cognitively engaged if they are exposed to learning environments which are engaging. For example, Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016) argue that teachers can require students to explain new concepts, give explanations about their reasoning on various concepts, defend why they have concluded on various aspects and also explore available literature to explain their beliefs and perceptions about a different phenomenon. When they are engaged, students enjoy learning activities and thus participate in school activities. Also, such activities promote teamwork and this encourages engagement and learning because when working together, students can solve problems in their surrounding making learning more interesting and fun. The teacher can ask students to conduct experiments, role-playing, participate in debates and even complete group projects. The teacher should also ensure that instruction rotates around real-life experiences and culture so that content is much more meaningful.

District officers and their role in student behavior and academic achievement

District officers have the responsibility of ensuring that educational institutions are well assessed, have excellent and qualified staff, control student enrolment, manage the curriculum of the region, and also ensure that the physical environment is favorable and promotes learning activities (Fredrricks and Blumenfeld 2014). Li and Derick (2013) argued that they are also supposed to ensure that the educational institutions have access to teaching and learning resources that are enough and their facilities are in good repair. They assess the institutions’ environment to ensure that there is enough water supply, conducive classroom environment, the school has workshop facilities and equipment, standard catering services, the level of the school sanitation and if it participates in co-curriculum activities. According to McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014), these district education officers are vital in education systems because they ensure that students can access the best services by recommending activities that will help the school achieve higher standards of education. Akey (2016) agreed to these sentiments and also argued that the district education officers are vital because they help improve the performance of students in assessed educational institutions. Li and Derick (2013) supports Akey (2016) and also argued that the assessment helps the school to identify their weakness and correct them accordingly. For example, newly recruited teachers need support from the school support systems to adjust accordingly and this can be achieved if there is an assessment done by district officers. District officers also help teachers and their school leaders to make important decisions which might affect their work positively. If a teacher‘s needs are met, then the teacher is motivated and gives quality services to the students. According to McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014), district education officers supervise schools and this has contributed to high education outcomes, good progress, hard-working teachers and positively motivated students. During supervision, the district officers determine the extent of knowledge the teachers have acquired in their areas of specialization, set high standards which teachers use to challenge their students and thus deepen their knowledge and understanding. The district educational officers also introduce and implement organizational practices which match curriculum objectives, the needs of the students, behavior management, effective use of time, resources and also help schools to achieve a better performance.

Parent involvement in behavior problems and academic achievement

According to Gentillucci and Muto (2017), parents’ involvement in the academic achievements and behavior of their children helps students achieve theory goals in academics. Also, according to Gerald and Helller (2015), school interventions work best when parents and the family is involved. For example, according to Li and Derick (2013), parents can get involved in their children’s learning activities and behavior mitigation through helping them with their homework, helping them maintain their own study routines, volunteering in the school events, participating in fundraisings, getting involved in home-school based communication like attending parent-teacher conferences, calling and writing notes to teachers in relation to the child’s wellbeing in academics. According to Akey (2016), Fredrricks and Blumenfeld (2014) and Gerald and Helller (2015), when parents are involved in their children’s educational activities, children are more likely to behave appropriately. Akey (2016) used Time-lagged growth models and concluded that parental involvement like helping children complete their homework and volunteering in school activities have positive impacts on the behavior of their children unlike those who did not get involved in their children’s’ academic activities. School-based, home-based and home school parental engagement have a positive socio-emotional impact in children from different racial backgrounds. Parents should start getting involved in the academic lives of their children right from elementary school and should not wait until there are behavioral problems to address so that they get involved. It is therefore undeniable that parents should greatly get involved in their children’s’ learning activities to help teachers and other stakeholders to regulate the behaviors of their children and benefit from the academic instructions to succeed in their social interactions.

The role of administration in students’ appropriate behavior and academic achievements

Markwell (2017) and Li and Derick (2013) argue that appropriate behavior can be cultivated through encouraging productive relationships between the teachers, students, parents, and the school administration. The school administration plays a critical role in managing the behaviors of students in a school. Combating inappropriate behavior among students can be mitigated by developing policies, procedures, rules and regulations which can guide the students’ and teachers’ behavior. Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016) also agreed with these arguments and also proposed that the school leaders and the entire administration need to be the initiators of a safe, collegial and caring environment. Apart from implementing policies and procedures, the school leaders need to live by example. The responsibility of the students’ performance and their behavior squarely lies on the shoulders of the administrators in a school. Leaders are normally required to put in place systems which help prevent disruptive behavior so as to have a smooth running educational institution whose students can achieve their goals. Leaders in a schooling institution are charged with the mandate to provide leadership, strategic planning to ensure that students are well behaved, and have high expectations in life, their education is goal oriented and achievable. The school leadership should ensure that the students can trust the learning institution, they feel safe and that all teachers are protected from interactions during class time.

Learning institutions as a community have a particular culture and context which play important roles in managing the behaviors of the student and achievements. As a community, the school should have values, norms, traditions, and motivational bases even though they may be different from one school to another. However, according to (Gentillucci and Muto 2017), culture and context affect the kind of values, attitudes, and norms of behavior and thus brings a whole new type of different ones that are required in the school. School administration should develop policies which explicitly explain behavioral expectations, how they should be enforced and also applied. Also, Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016) agreed with these observations and argued that classroom rules play a vital role in helping the teachers manage the class. On an average scale, Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016)stated that class rules should be between four to six rules because too many rules make it complicated and thus hard for students to observe. For a teacher to effectively manage the class there is a need for effective planning the environment because an environment influences the way teachers think and behave.

Personal practices of the school administration on implementing discipline and ensuring academic achievement

A research conducted by McCormick, Elisa, Erin, and McClowry (2014) revealed that the visibility of school heads results to decreased student disciplinary referrals. Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016) also argued that frequent patrols of school heads in the school campus are instrumental in controlling student problematic behavior. Paul, Palmer, Kuh, and Hannah (2016) supported these views by stating that when school administrators walk along the class corridors, make impromptu lass and lesson visits and take strict action against inappropriate behavior, indiscipline cases go low because this is a form of supportive systems for classroom teachers.

Support systems for students

According to Nooriddin and Shariffah (2014), to achieve a highly disciplined school, one of the most powerful, highly effective preventive component for behavior issues is developing a school-wide encouraging climate with good social skills and impressive behavior which are taught and reinforced in students.  Students should be taught interpersonal concepts like respect, tolerance and even the rights of fellow students. They should also be given time to understand the meaning of acquiring and maintaining a respectful conduct because it requires time, modeling, practice and maturity (Willms 2013) and  (Stephen 2014). According to Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016), student behavioural support systems, procedures, regulations and procedures are essential aspects of student support systems in an education institution. Gentillucci and Muto (2017) argued that the student support systems should include clearly stated expectations that encourage positive behavior and clearly describe student behavioral support system strategies. The behavioural support system should also recognize teach and reward positive behavior from the students, give clear procedures, rules and sanctions that the institution looks forward to implement in case a student exhibits negative behavior. The support system should understand the behavior of the student from an eco-system perspective because students’ behaviors are affected by the context of where they are living (Gerald & Heller 2015). Student support systems also need to embrace inclusiveness by caring for all students who come from different backgrounds. They should promote the physical and psychological health of the students and be linked to quality learning experiences and good behavior.

Support systems for teachers

The administration also has the mandate to develop support systems for their teachers because managing behavior of students is sometimes a large-scale initiative that requires a collaborative rethinking process, well-articulated curriculum and instructional materials, family engagement and teamwork. Collaboration between the teachers and the administration leads to development of a viable institution culture, careful planning and collective decision making especially in matters to do with the discipline of the students. Once there are teacher support systems in place, teachers are able to deliver quality, focus on the performance of the students, impressive problem solving, development of a welcoming organizational culture and collaboration and finally, the teacher feels supported by all collaborative structures at all district levels. According to Krammer, Jing, Vaugh, and Andrea (2016), when teachers’ support systems are in place, teachers and administrators communicate to parents with one voice, the teaching fraternity can meet and discuss pressing issues that concern their students, teachers have consistent in-house professional training to help them gain more skills to handle challenges in their teaching environment and also have discussed and agreed on various aspects including school vocabulary, writing sources and dependent questions among many others.

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