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Biological Causes of Depression

Biological Causes of Depression

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Product ID: 596 Category: .

Biological Causes of Depression

Length: 5-7 pages (not including title and reference page)

Format: Correct APA format throughout. Please use the files below to learn more about APA format. (Biological Causes of Depression)

Title: Include an informative, interesting, provocative and/or creative title – but nothing too crazy!

The Literature Review consists of an introduction, summary of scholarly sources, a discussion and evaluation of the sources (including disputes and disagreements), and a conclusion in which you put forth your own potential original research ideas, and also discuss strengths and weaknesses of the literature you reviewed. A minimum of five scholarly sources are required for this assignment. All articles MUST be scholarly research articles

The Literature Review in the Research Process

“Literature” refers to the scholarly writing, published (original) research study results, and other important analyses on a particular aspect of a topic. So you are not going to write an essay on a Shakespearean play or some other literary text.

The purpose of a literature review is fourfold: The first is to summarize and assess the state of existing knowledge on your narrowed topic. What knowledge exists and is generally accepted with regard to your topic? Are there important differences or disagreements among scholars? Are there significant problems or limitations with any of the research studies? Which research methods were employed in the various research studies, which were not, and with what consequences? What questions remain unanswered? What aspects or approaches seem relatively unexplored? Through the process of reviewing existing knowledge you will also develop a better understanding of your topic.

Length: 5-7 pages (not including title and reference page)
Format: Correct APA format throughout. Please use the files below to learn more about APA format.

Title: Include an informative, interesting, provocative and/or creative title – but nothing too crazy!

The Literature Review consists of an introduction, summary of scholarly sources, a discussion and evaluation of the sources (including disputes and disagreements), and a conclusion in which you put forth your own potential original research ideas, and also discuss strengths and weaknesses of the literature you reviewed. A minimum of five scholarly sources are required for this assignment. All articles MUST be scholarly research articles

The Literature Review in the Research Process

“Literature” refers to the scholarly writing, published (original) research study results, and other important analyses on a particular aspect of a topic. So you are not going to write an essay on a Shakespearean play or some other literary text.

The purpose of a literature review is fourfold: The first is to summarize and assess the state of existing knowledge on your narrowed topic. What knowledge exists and is generally accepted with regard to your topic? Are there important differences or disagreements among scholars? Are there significant problems or limitations with any of the research studies? Which research methods were employed in the various research studies, which were not, and with what consequences? What questions remain unanswered? What aspects or approaches seem relatively unexplored? Through the process of reviewing existing knowledge you will also develop a better understanding of your topic.

Required Elements of the Literature Review

Introduction: The introduction presents your narrowed topic or area of inquiry, usually through its significance and/or an overview statement of how researchers have studied this narrowed area. You will want to define the topic, and give a broad overview of the current state of research findings surrounding this topic. Don”t forget to cite sources here – you did not come to the table with this knowledge already in your brain!

Summary: The summary-of-sources section presents the research, knowledge, and analysis that the literature offers concerning your narrowed research topic. This section should be organized according to the issues or aspects studied, the accepted interpretations or theories, the disputed claims, and any unanswered questions. Do not simply summarize each source in separate paragraphs. The paragraphs in your summary should focus on specific issues, not necessarily on individual authors. For example, if you were studying prison reform, one paragraph might present what three scholars have reported regarding education programs in prison, even though one or more of those authors might show up again in another paragraph on visitation rights. If a paragraph happens to focus on only one author or article, make sure this is for a good reason, for example, the article represents the authoritative discussion of a particular issue; in such a case, the content of that paragraph should be limited to the issue and not turn into a general summary of the article.

Discussion and Evaluation: This section is your discussion and evaluation of the articles from your summary section and not your discussion of the issues themselves. Instead, you are interpreting and evaluating the knowledge presented in the summary section in order to raise questions for further research. You may discuss and evaluate the significance of various conclusions and arguments, the completeness of individual studies, the research methods used, substantial areas of disagreement, debates over definitions of terms, and/or the consistency of the results with each other. As you present your evaluation, do so cautiously with thorough analysis and explanation. Challenging the results of a professional study with nothing but one isolated observation or opinion will reveal your naivete more than any real weakness in the study. Share your evaluation without using the first person (I, me, my, mine); doing so will shift the readers focus away from the subject and onto you, the writer. As you discuss and evaluate the knowledge and issues with regard to your narrowed topic, raise questions for further study along the way. Refer directly to all of the articles from your Summary section. Do not introduce new articles in this section that you haven”t already covered in the Summary section.

Please note that even though you may take issue with aspects of the research and findings in your sources, it is very rare for the discussion to include a complete dismissal of any one source. If you read a source and find that it has nothing or little of value to offer on your topic, then do not include it in the literature review. By choosing to include sources in your literature review, you imply that you have already judged them to offer something that is worth consideration.

Further, it is important to distinguish between evaluation for analytical purposes and evaluation for entertainment purposes. While this kind of essay is called a literature review, it is not a review in the sense of a movie review. You should not be concerned with whether the material you have reviewed is entertaining. The purpose, rather, is to demonstrate how considering various arguments and approaches improves our understanding and engages us in new questions.

Conclusion: The conclusion synthesizes the knowledge confirmed through the discussion and evaluation section while identifying areas for further research. After reviewing the literature, what do we know? What dont we know? There should be an apparent connection between the new areas of inquiry and the summary of existing knowledge. Bring your conclusion to a close by identifying and discussing the significance of your topic.

References and In-text Citations: An APA style reference page, with all of the sources referred to in your literature review, must be included at the end of your essay. All quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing must also follow APA guidelines. In your presentation and analysis of sources, do not use direct quotes; excessive quoting can turn your literature review into a cacophony of different voices that frustrates the readers ability to find cohesion be

Solution

Title: Biological causes of depression

Pages: 6

Style: APA

Paper Review

Biological Causes of Depression

Introduction

What most people do not realize is that depression is a real disease which has an impact on one’s brain. Depression is more than just feeling sad and is brought about by changes in brain chemistry. Some of the common factors that contribute to depression include difficult life circumstances, grief, genetics, stress, medical conditions, or changes in hormone levels (Adrien, 2003). By definition, depression refers to feelings of much sadness and hopelessness. It is important for people to understand what depression is, and how to tell if someone is suffering from it. Most of us have at one time or the other felt depressed or sad following various factors such as those aforementioned. However, there are those who tend to exhibit these feelings for many days, weeks or even months. Clinically depressed individuals fail to function normally in their day-to-day lives. According to World Health Organization, depression is considered to be one of the most disabling illnesses in the world (Gilbert, 2001). One in every five females and one in every ten males are affected at some point in their lives. In this paper, we will look at the current debate, if any, about depression, focusing on what causes this disease. The paper will specifically focus on the biological causes of depression, where a conclusion will be provided at the end.

Summary of Scholarly Sources

Primary sources have been utilized in this paper. There have been claims that biological factors do not necessarily result in depression, and that it depends with the environment one is in. This point has been explained by psychodynamic theories.  However, this paper has disputed the claim and provided enough evidence to suggest otherwise. According to Kenneth Kendler’s group which conducted various studies to determine whether biological factors were actually a cause of depression, it was found that gene-environment interaction, or what was referred to as GxE, may provide explanations as to why life tension is a trigger for depressive incidents in some people, but not in others (Carlson, 2001). Recently, the first genetics study has already been published, having positively identified two variants with genome-wide link to depressive disorder.

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