Design for E-bike Dissertation Sample October 23, 2018 – Posted in: Order Custom Essay Paper

Design for E-bike Dissertation Sample

Executive summary

The progression of the bikes has had a lot of effects on our environment, in terms of nation in advancing modern technology. We notice that many components which were made in the bike ended also being used in vehicles, like chain-driven sprockets, tension-spoked wheels. Bicycles were introduced in the late 19th century in Europe, and they gain an enormous popularity in term of safety, transportation and environment. Today, the E-bike come along with new concept of transportation, with new technology over the year including, artificial intelligence, variety of shapes, acceleration, top speed and relatively lightweight. In this report outlines will discuss the implementation of the next Electrical Bike generation for western Sydney University to integrate into smart campus which depend on smart bike. The design team will show in details the functionality of the E-bike chosen, to the pros and cons of various design made, like choosing the right materials and profiles for component. E-bike performance criteria will be stated and the operation behind these criteria and the integration of this art design will be mentioned. A display of a fully assembled, rendered SolidWorks CAD design of the final E-bike shape. (Design for E-bike Dissertation Sample)

Introduction

The usage of high-end technology had experienced a rapidly growth since 1998, since the transportation industry introduced a user friendly electrical bike, hover board and an electrical powered skateboard. This industry had come along way with new innovations to satisfy the customers and the new generation under one purpose is to eliminate pollution and have a healthy life, one of the major changes is the design, efficiency, materials type and motors types. In previous year the bike wasn’t well represent and popular due to major reason such as high cost and lack of practicality, and over time these problems and gaps were eliminated with new manufacturing process and the improvement of new materials and performance. If every bike company think from the customers side not from the financial side than the bike will be the highest seller due to its efficiency and eco-friendly system. This e-bike design will thrive anywhere but mainly at universities where the transportation form the train station to the main campus is a major problem, because not everyone drive and also nor everyone use public transport. For this reason this e-bike will provide western Sydney university whether students or staff with free, convenient and sustainable transport between different locations throughout the Penrith Campus.

Background

For some reason, people think that the e-bikes are modern technologies and inventions, however; if we go back to the history we see that it started inventing it in 1890, and it was recognized by several U.S patents. In December 1895, Ogden Bolton Jr. was approved U.S. Patent for battery-operated bicycle with “6-pole brush-and-commentator direct current hub motor mounted in the rear wheel”. This bike didn’t include gears, moreover; the power of the motor reached 100A from a 10-volt battery. In 1897 “double electric motor” e-bike was created by Hosea W. Libby of Boston. Electrical bike was the alternative transportation tools of the 19th and 20th century, but one problem the human didn’t solve since then, which is the balance and equality between the battery life and weight with the power generated from this battery capable for a long travel, so it was a big conflict between the bike performance and the customer side. On the other hands, technologies nowadays put on the table a lots of ways to reduce this gap and issue by an efficient long life battery with a satisfactory visual and physical appealing which satisfy the consumer over the time, even it vary between the road shapes and human weight, and all about the enhancement of its performance on the roads.

Aim

As a revolutionary designing team, our goals is to design an effective electrical bike for both students and staffs in every single institution or organization whether for private or business use. Considering the main characteristics such as, working range, practicality, appearance, traveling performance, handling characteristics and the product needs to hit the high standard of the bike manufacturing industry and shape it up the right way to be competitive in the Australian electrical bike market for now and future. The first goals to achieve is to make this bike suitable for western Sydney university student mainly, because the classification of the ages is between 18 and 27. Let’s consider aesthetics because it is something that need to be in the design particular. Realistically, both student and staff travel by bus from the station to the university campus, but with the new travelling technic and the purpose of a smart intelligent campus this e-bike will travel as a maximum distance of 1.4 KM(displayed in the figure 1 below), which will give the user an effective exercise and a great and enjoyable experience that ever before.

E-bike LML:

Team activities and Member roles:

Sami Arja 18040571:

  • Responsible of 100% E-bike design, Drafting,Rendering and visualizing CAD.
  • Research of materials, history, past and present DFX.
  • 40% of report writing.
  • Attending all the 3 meeting and follow all the procedures.

Emmanuel Jebidelekian:

  • 80% research skills such as materials type, sustainability and environmental effect.
  • 30% drafting skills for all the body model.
  • 40% of report writing.
  • Attending all the 3 meeting and follow all the procedures.

Ben Cai:

  • 20 % of report writing.
  • Attending all the 2 meeting and follow all the procedures.
  • Research of design of X such as assembly, disassembly, reliability and manufacturing.

Performance criteria:

Nowadays, users don’t have to pedal, while traveling, the electrical bike invention replace all these effort by a smart electrical engine which can be Auto-chargeable by a dynamo located on the front wheel saving both time and effort. On the other hand, as most people run for the easy and regularly cheap way to satisfy they financial situation as student, the price of the e-bike will only be limited between 1499$ and 1699$ depending on the battery performance and the bike materials, and this price will cover the manufacturing and shipping cost, in able to be affordable for both the seller and buyer, so it boost the economical side of this industry and its reputation will sky rocket. Without forgetting that this particular bike is solving a transportation issue and give the user time to experience the nature with or without pedaling when needed, because it is considered for short traveling. The e-bike needs to be sustainable, it needs to be reliable and have a long service life. To do this the components need to resist all failure modes such as corrosion, stress fractures and cracks. The motor needs to be of high standard and reliable, the battery needs to have a long holding of charge and needs to be able to be charged relatively quickly so that it doesn’t waste too much time in which the bike can be ridden. The battery also needs to have a long service life so that the consumer, WSU, isn’t buying batteries once every year because the batteries loose their performance and charge holding characteristics. Producing sustainable products in today’s society is very important and the E-bike needs to achieve these goals. 

Basic design decisions:

After a lot of discussion we took a decision to work on an e-bike in which it will be a light advanced boomerang style element close to the figure 1.5 making slight changes and modifications. This e-bikes design character is dynamic and sporty, also it includes self-supporting frame which makes the battery to the heart of the bike. The style is a smooth style, advance stylish road bike tyres, and light weight practical which will help the user to have a fast, stylish environmentally- friendly E-bike, also the e-bike contains suspension in the frame, which help the e-bike more comfortable, and a dynamo which help you to charge the battery of the e-bike and your phone.

When we started to work on our E-bike we had to draw as sketches like fig1.1, 1.2. 1.3.1.4 and 1.5. In these sketches is where we started to do brainstorm. In these sketches is where our initial designing ideas started to come and share it with each other. We weren’t sure if the type of the bike will be standard type, or it will be boomerang style, or even we were thinking to make something close to Harley Davidson style bike. At the beginning we started a bike close to the bike in fig 1.1. However we realised that this type of bike doesn’t have a chain, the gears are stuck on the rims. Even it didn’t have main rims in the middle of the bike. This type of bike had problems with maintenance. Also there is not enough space to install our engine and battery. Moreover; after doing researches on it we noticed that the frame is weak frame and not comfortable comparing to the boomerang style or standard type frame. Also we weren’t sure if we should put a storage compartment. At the beginning, we were trying to make a storage compartment but at the same we wanted to save weight and keep the handling of the bike in its best shape. We thought to make the storage compartment in the middle of the bike, so that the centre of the bike is as low as possible, to improve the handling. But we realized that there would be complication in the design frame and it would be too close to the engine compartment and battery. After that we decided to be at the back, however we realised the weight will be too much and the bike will be too heavy, that’s why at the end we decided not to put storage compartment. Since we decided not to put the storage compartment we had the ability to make the E-bike light weight, also we had the ability to put smaller engine and battery in which it will help the users to save money and be legal to drive it. 

Fig 1.1 &1.2: the first 2 drawing that we were the first inital drawing of the bike

Fig1.3 & 1.4: are the drawing with the storage compartment, and Harley Davidson style and standard style 

Fig1.5: main sketch in which we build our E-bike

When we took the decision to make boomerang style e-bike we did it based on a lot of reasons. It was a durable, strong strength, long service life, also making the battery to the heart of the bike, the dynamic flow of lines and fully enclosed drive, which reduces the service of the wheel to a minimum. In building a bike there are variety of materials that can be use. We can find AISI 1020 steel, Titanium Alloys, Carbon fibre Reinforce polymers, Kevlar Reinforced polymers. Most of the bicycle are made of 6061 Aluminium Alloy and AISI 4340 Chromium Molybdenum steel. The properties of aluminium are low density, with acceptable yield strength, modulus of elasticity. Also we can find the carbon fibre a material in which start to dominate material industry. It is high strength to weight ratio, it is rigid, it resists corrosion, fatigue resistance, and its tensile strength is good but its brittle, low coefficient for thermal expansion, which encourages us to use that to, also titanium and alloy steel plays a role to.

Analysis of frame materials 6061 Aluminium Alloy AISI 4340 Chromium Molybdenum Steel Carbon fibre
Tensile Yield Strength (MPA) 276 710 2550
Modulus of Elasticity (MPA) 68900 205000 120000
Density (kg/m3) 2700 7850 1570

Table 1.1: Table of materials properties for Aluminium, Chro-moly and carbon fibre

After materials and design we should also give time for the motor, and when we start deciding for which engine to install, there are couple of things we should remember in order to have the suitable motor for the bike. The acceleration, top speed, range, the power according to the weight ratio. Also and one of the most important thing is the life service and reliability. Also we should take under consideration the laws that the government apply, and one of them is the engine power which shouldn’t exceed 250W based on the vehicle standard information 2014. By using these information will start to have the ability to find couple of an appropriate kit that is safe and legal. The cost of whole motor system it vary, we can find from couple of hundred dollars reaching to 1000$ and more. However, there is a lot of differences between them, especially in there lifespan. The cheap ones might be used for couple of months, however the expensive one can last more than 3 years. For this reason since we wanted to have an excellent quality E-bike we had to start brain storming, searching online, in order to find a good quality motor, so that the users be happy and satisfied. We decided to use a crank style motor because the motor has a fanned casing which lets the heat to lease and cool down easier. The location of the motor will help to put the weight low on the bike which help in good balancing and classic bike feel, also it performances on hills will perform better than the hub motor. Moreover, since we had to use low power motor, doing a crank style is the best way since they work quite well in low power level and in a more efficient way than the hub motors. On the other hand we neglected using the hub motors because the cost of the motor is to high sine it’s more complicated than the other electric motor, the location of the motor might lead to the heat to increase, but it wouldn’t lead to much problems. The hub motor might add extra couple of kg. When the user wants to buy the e-bike there couple of different systems in the market, there is the pedal assist, also there is the throttle control. Both of this system have their own advantage and disadvantage, but it’s usually what the user like to use, they like to pedal it and get help from the engine, or they like it to use it by a push of the button and do minimum effort to make the e-bike work. In this case this e-bike will have pedal assist torque sensor, in which has the ability to know how hard you are pedalling and increases and decreases the power output based on that reading. When it comes to purchasing the e-bike, usually the customer has the ability to purchase separately the motor, battery, sensors, brakes, or they can purchase all the e-bike together containing all the parts. On this bike we realise that it has a dynamo, it is Forumslader V5. This dynamo is the most powerful dynamo charger, it has the capability to hit 2.5 W at 13km/h and 5w at 20km/h, moreover; it always get updated.

For all these reasons and after a lot of discussion we took the decision to use Yamaha PW-X weighing 3.1 Kg. Yamaha has good amount of experience in making bikes and e-bikes. They are top of the game, they offer an e-bike which is reliable, powerful and pleasant to use. They started making the engine PW in 2015, and after 2 years they made PW-X. They made 13% smaller in volume, and reduce the weight, by using lighter materials. Also they had the ability to reduce the thickness of the Yamaha drive gears and using wider hollow axle like Fig1.6. After doing that they managed to reduce the weight by 11% approximately 500grams. They had the coupled internals with a 128 mm axle, it moves over to an ISIS axle. Furthermore; they increased the overall response, by the help of usage lighter components and tighter gear pawls, which means that the response of the engine will be quicker comparing to the other engines and one of them is the engine PW (old version of the PW-X).This engine has5 assistance mode for the rider, Eco+ (50%), Eco (100%), Standard (190%), High (280%), and Extra power (320%)  This engine’s torque is 80Nm for EXPW mode and 70Nm for, High/STD/Eco/+Eco (We see in the graph 1.1 & 1.2 the input torque and the motor torque comparison between the pw engine and pw-x engine)(Graph 1.3 showing the 5 modes and there motor torque120 rpm EXPW mode, 110 rpm High/STD/Eco/+Eco) . Being lighter and fast responsive it helps the rider to be more in control in tighter spots and the bike will be more agile.  

Fig1.6: Size comparison of PW and PWX of the engine and new hollow gears and shaft (green part is the old engine)

                                                            Fig:1.7

Graph 1.1 & 1.2: comprison of person  between the engine PW and engine PW-X

Fig1.7: comparison of the freewheel 1/3 reduction in backlash               

Graph 1.3: Drive mode comparison

When it was time to work on our wheels, we decided to use a 28inch wheel Schwalbe Marathon Plus tyres. We are going to use 28-inch wheel because larger wheels have the ability to roll over obstacles and bumps easier, in which it helps it to make it more efficient and more comfortable for the rider, this is because something called “angle of attack”. It makes it easier for many different type of riding, including taking off-road where the bike has to face new challenges like encountering rock and roots, or when driving in the cities the bike will have to face curbs, put holes. But the small wheels will make it uncomfortable and unpleasant, the rider will fell every single bump. Also bigger wheels have the ability to better store inertia. When the rider speed up and let go the throttle, it will result in a longer period than on a small wheel. The rims will be solid style wheel design. We didn’t use the spoke style, because its not as attractive and appealing like the solid style, when the rider want to buy an E-bike they would prefer a good looking one rather than the average looking. Moreover, as time passes the spoke of the wheel will start to become loose and needs maintenance, on the other hand the solid type rims they don’t need much maintenance, and have the ability to serve the condition of the E-bike more. The tyre that going to be use on the E-bike is Schwalbe Marathon Plus tires. They are one of the fastest, most efficient, and best quality tire. It also has an extra thick protective strip running down the centre of the tire. Moreover, its comfort is not too bad and the riding noise is very low.

This E-bike also contains a suspension, this suspension system is used to help the E-bike to insulate the roughness of the road, it increases the traction and safety by keeping both wheels and one of them in contact with the ground. This suspension is one of the worlds latest suspension forks, It’s the Rock Shox SID XX world cup forks , which are 120mm travel and feature a fully air adjustable setup for riders choice, and also the Xloc lockout system for conserving energy whilst climbing. Ultimate’s rear shock is matched with a super light Rock Shox Monarch XX air adjustable shock.

In order for the E-bike to run we decided to use the tested chain and sprocket design. Even though the belt system was use in the best, but we realise that there was a problem with the reliability in the bicycle industry. The chain drive system is very old system, and it reaches a point and it fails like any other parts or materials, however; it last much longer than the belt. As days pass and when the E-bike is being used it will be exposed into a lot of challenges and might go through harsh conditions, the belt will start to become brittle and crack will start to show up , these cracks will facilitate the process of complete failure of the system, and the rider might end up in the middle of the road while using his/her bike.

Many riders will be forced to use the bike at night, that’s why out E-bike contains LED light, which is mounted in front of the frame under the handlebars. This helps the users to use the bike not only in the morning, but also at night after they finish the class. This headlight can light at night, or also can help during the day as a safety precaution.

Knowing different parts of the frame we used simple basic bicycle terminology ,it lets you to know the name of the pats, like the top tube, head tube, down tube, seat tube, chain stays  will you understand the design analysis of the e-bike. For this reason in the fig 1.7, will the name of the frame of the e-bike which make things much easier to understand and reduces a lot of complications and errors. 

Fig.1.7: Bicycle frame technical terminology 

The following calculations are used to determine the maximum range an E-bike can travel under standard operating conditions. The relevant formula, data and calculations are given below.

Given:

Drag coefficient=0.5

Frontal Area (A) = 0.5 m2

Air Density (p) = 1.226 kg/m3

Speed (V) = 25km/h= 6.94 m/s

Mass (M) = 90kg Mass of rider + 17kg Mass of the bike= 107

Power Available (Pa)= 500Wh (Yamaha down tube type)

Range = 41.83km

According to manufacturer

Max Range                 130km (80miles)

Average Range        95km (59 miles)

Throttle Only Range            70km (43 miles)

Coefficient of Rolling (Rc) =0.004

Slope (Gc) = 0.01 (Ratio of flat separation over vertical climb)

Engine Efficiency (∈) = around 90%

Significant Formulae:

Air protection (Af) = 1/2* Frontal Area (A) * Drag Coefficient (Cdo) * Air Density (ρ) * Speed (V)2

Moving Resistance (Rf) = Mass (M) * 9.81 * Coefficient of Rolling (Rc)

Gravity Force (Gf) = Mass (M) * 9.81 * Gradient (Gc)

Power required (P1) = (Air Resistance (Af) + Rolling Resistance (Rf) + Gravity Forces (Gf) * Speed (V) * 100/ (Motor Efficiency(s) )

Power accessible (Pa) = Cell voltage (VC) * Cell Capacity (Ac) * Amount of Cells (N)

Range (Rt) = Power accessible (Pa)/Power Required (Pr) * Speed (V)

Figuring’s:

Air Resistance (Af)= 7.381

Moving Resistance (Rf) =4.2

Gravity Forces (Gf) =10.496

Power required (Pf) = 298.8W 

Fig.1.4: Data values in which it helps us to make our calculation 

Design Analysis:

A lot of questions are asked when we start working on design analysis, they help us provide precise answers. Is it going to breakdown or heat up? Or is it going to buckle? Rather than wasting time and building prototypes and conducting test to analyze the physical behavior of an invention, engineers can provoke this information fast and precisely on the computer. For this matter, we consider different studies of strains and stresses applied on the bike’s frame. Furthermore, we loaded the frame with a 100-kg force mainly on the seat to expect the maximum performance on the weight loaded on the seat, because as a commercial electrical bike we expect different people with different weight purchasing it. On the other part, another load of 25 kg forces is applied on the handlebars both ends which made from Carbon Fiber 12k, due to its low costing manufacturing and appealing shape and light weight. Although this force is not significantly high but it’s a simulation on where the stress will start from and where it will be located according to the loaded applied on the two-part mentioned. The color blue represents the minimal stress within the material and this gradually gets larger as the color changes from green to yellow and finally to red which represents the highest stress concentration within the frame, from here, the stress is mainly located and according to the load the stress will spread widely through the frame according to the figure 2 below. In addition, these analyses were subject to a 9.81 m/s^2 gravitational force in the y direction. The main point to study stress analysis is to raise awareness of where the stress is concentrated, to have a better vision and overcome on the body system in order to avoid any failure or any weakness spot, these gather real time data which help the design strength and durability for the long term as a commercial electrical bike. As designing simulated prototyping is important to detect all the possible stress points which will cause braking, bending, and cracking, buckling and shearing. As well as trying to maintain the body and solve this error in the system by applying various fundamentals, such as materials types, scaling parts, number of gears and decrease sharp corners, to reduce this stresses failure which affect the body and the customer side, in order to obtain a sustainable sharp body.

Figure1: Bike Advanced Frame under stress study.

Figure 2: bike wheel under stress study.

Choosing the right materials type involved several process and measurement to create the perfect combination between the design and the materials from the financial and economical side of the project. The most important thing when it goes in choosing materials is choosing materials with high durability and strength, with high life design which mean the materials will last as long as the bike body will last, because the customer will not be interested in changing the materials, also materials which can handle the various type of environment and a cheap high-quality material that are also available in the market. For that matter, the best quality materials should be for the wheel as they are attached all the time with the ground and handling all its pressure and periodic forces. In general, if any failure in the wheel structure and design happen during pedaling, would be harmful and may cause in some cases dead for the user depend on where he/she will be on the road, to ensure this doesn’t occur, selection of the wheel materials should be the strongest. To analyze this forces and simulate it, we load a pair of 1000 N forces to the 92 mm bike wheel to ensure that this load is the maximum load that I can applied on the body doesn’t break it or bend for a safe long drive and that’s also depend on the average Australian and the bike weight, which is 71.1 kg and 20 overall for the bike according to the Australian roads and maritime. The results were quiet satisfying as there was to red patches spread in the body, was all a green and yellow patches regular stress applied on it, which minimize its possibilities to break through the time, but still there is concern of any failure according to the usage and the temperature as well as the type of maintenance which will be applied on the bike body through the time which many increase the possibility of any risk and failure.

FMEA:

It’s important to understand the failure modes and analyze the major issues that will affect the design, which will give the designing and engineering team a wise choose and the right decision to avoid these failures and potentially lead to the user’s safety being at risk in the first place or the product not meeting the standards and expectations of the rider, and also it awaken the customer about the weakness point and how to have to right behavior in order to avoid these failures. Realistically, these are several major failures modes and effects Analysis like the one mentioned below.

Life cycle Assessment:

As can been seen that even with a good and efficient design, still it has some Failures Modes which affect the body system from operating due to external and internal forces, which can be from the environment and the human. We conclude that, the life cycle assessment is designed to study the environmental impacts of the product throughout all stages and design level through development and materials manufacturing.

In the figure below, it’s clear that even an electrical bike that doesn’t operate on combustion burning, still have an environmental impact, but only few components consume energy and only a small percentage of energy is consuming by the bike. We conclude that only the front wheel, carrier bike and bike fork are the only component that consume the most.

Figure 3.2: top ten most energy consuming bike components

Figure 3.3: Energy use for each transportation mode.

Figure 3.3: Lead Losses to the Environment. 

Design for X (DFX):

There are lots of design elements which need to be considered when we want to design a product. The product must be better than other products which are already made by other people or sold on the market. Otherwise, the customer won’t buy the product and the product will become unmarketable which means our design is useless. Therefore, we need to consider about design question ‘design for X’. Design for X be divided into the design for assembly, design for manufacturing, design for safety, design for reliability, design for environment, design for sustainability and design for disassembly. Design for x is a successful design idea and it can analyze all aspects of the product below.

Design for assembly is important that we can reduce the assembly time, the assembly cost and the assembly process. We can simplify the E-bike system to complete the above achievement and the design is much easily to assemble with minimal costs from workers. Moreover, we can simplify the connection between the forks and the head tube which can reduce the parts in the e-bike. Last but not least, we use the common connection between the head tube and the front forks which is using thrust bearing because this type of bearing is widely used in recent year but now we use no bearings. For example, we just use forks to connect to the head tube using both smooth surface because this connection is much efficient when we use lubrication and the connection is simple, practical and cost less.

Design for manufacturing is important because the original manufacturing process is complex and costly and if we can simplify the process with the same quality then we can reduce the money and the final e-bike will become much cheaper and the customer can spend less money and our product will become more Competitive. Therefore, we use more standard dimensions on the common materials like bearing, shafts and tubing and so on. Using the common standard materials can save time to manufacture our product and easily to find the material on other production company and the customer can spend less money on the e-bike.

Design for safety is the most important thing for design. Therefore, we using ANSYS to test the major force and stress for each components and using solid work to design the e-bike model and then do the motion analysis. Brake is another important thing in safety. We use Magura MT 8 hydraulic dis brakes to brake our e-bike which is made with carbon composite levers and their stoppers are free to maintain and they provide huge stopping power to brake the bike with their piston design.

Design for reliability is important when choosing the battery and motor because there are huge great bicycles sold at market every year but less e-bike picking. For example, china has the largest population and most of them using bike but they do not choose e-bike because Chinese e-bike has low power and speed due to Chinese e-bike law and thus Chinese person prefer using bike. Therefore, we need to design a strong frame with a strong reliable motor and battery. That is why we pick the battery pack from Yamaha which can ride the bike in 4 hours using fully electric power with 3 kg weight and the motor from Yamaha which has the maximum speed is 25 km/h, 120 rpm and the rated power is 250w with only 3.1 kg weight. Those design is allowed in Australia law and those reliable design is important as a part of the design element.

Design for environment is an important thing for engineering design with atmospheric carbon dioxide rising and global warming. It is important to minimize the environmental and human health impacts when we produce the new product. There are many ways to pollute the environment such as choosing of the manufacturing processes, the transportation during manufacturing and the extraction of the material. Therefore, we need to choose different measure to reduce the environmental impact. For example, we can use recycle stickers on materials and use sustainability design plan.

Design for sustainability is a part of the environment of design and it is about how to ensure the product’s life with safe in correct working order. One of the important way is using high quality components to satisfy customer’s needs and expectations. Moreover, we need to analysis the maintenance for ensuring the quality components and sustaining the time of the e-bike. The maintenance is about the reducing components’ life in e-bike including the breakdown and corrosion of materials, and we need to consider if the bike repair fails and we can try to recycle our material. For example, we use the battery pack which can be took away from the broken bike and it can be use on other same size bike from the same company to get the same e-bike because some of the e-bike which battery pack is fix on the bike and it can be took away. On other way, if our battery pack loses its quickly charge or break, we can just change a new battery and we can keep using the same bike. The motor is similar to the battery as well. Therefore, if we can repair our material or we can change the bike, motor and battery and other part of the e-bike and the e-bike is sustainability.

Design for disassembly is one of the important thing that we need to consider for designing a product. Design for disassembly shows how too easily to disassemble a product when we repair or recycle the product. Design for disassembly effect both Design for Environment and Design for Sustainability because if a product cannot be disassembled quickly, efficiently and safely and then the costumer may give up the product or purchase a new product. Therefore, we need to focus more on interchangeable and sustainability in the throwaway society. 

Final Design:

After deciding which design system will be implemented, the analysis of every component and the environmental impact, now the e-bike is ready to be implemented depending on its costing side and its sustainability. Considering, western Sydney university student budget and the electric bike materials cost, there should be an equality between them. According to that, the design team decide to choose cheap materials with high durability and high strength to satisfy the customer budget with high safety standard. Once, all the components type is specified, then the price will be estimated to see how much the E-bike production cost as an assembly cost for every single component. The general wholesale price of the retail price is 60% which is 1683.2 $.

Figure 3.4: Bill of materials of E-bike, depending on every single component.

The stress analysis show that the stress is concentrated on the mid hole where the front wheel fork will be located. For that reason, the plan is to reduce the stress concentration to improve the service life of the e-bike and reduce the change of any failure occurring during riding. For that matter, we decide to enhance the materials types which is light, strong and with long life design, which is carbon fiber zoltek panex 33 for better performance, excellent appearance and avoiding corrosion so the e-bike can definitely have a long service life under any nature, environment and human condition.

Figure 3.5: visualization of E-bike Frame, material type: Carbon fiber zoltek panex 33.

Wheel final design:

We final design of the wheel materials is carbon fiber. We have decided this design over the traditional one, because its more visual appealing and also more durable unlike other design which is aluminum alloy. Being carbon fiber make the wheel as a very corrosive resistant and will last for longer time.

Figure 3.5: final rendering of the e-bike wheel, materials type: carbon fiber 3k.

After analyzing and researching various type of motor and battery including different types of crank design, the final decision was to choose this YAMAHA ergonomics Rear Carrier Type which is 500Wh:

  • Lithium-ion battery: 36v.
  • Charging time: approx. 4.0 hrs.
  • Weight: 3.0 kg.

With a YAMAHA High-Speed charger which it has:

  • Input voltage: 220-240 v
  • Frequency: 50/60 Hz
  • Size: 184x86x50 mm (791cc).

The front fork designed according to the standard system, which is hard to change, because it very important in the bike to attach the wheel the frame and handlebars with the ground for a smooth ride. And because the front fork connected to the suspension system, they are made from carbon fiber to give the front fork a smooth degree of freedom which make it easier for the rider to turn right and left during emergency.the seat is designed similar to the traditional and common bike type, because that’s the most comfy and successful design through the manufacturing history of the E-bike. In addition, that the seat need to be soft but supportive and suitable for all human sizes and also supportive for different weight. For that reason, the seat has a wide profile with a biodensity comfort foam outer layer with a Kevlar reinforce black cover which visual appealing for the customer, in addition that the main structure of the seat is made form carbon fiber to suite all body shapes as mentioned.

Figure 3.6: final design of the e-bike seat.

Figure 3.7: final rendering for the crank with the pedals.

The crank we have decided to design have two main gears. This gives the user the option of relaxing a little bit and riding a little slower or being able to put down that extra power when tackling those torturous hills. And according to the e-bike body color the crank and the gears are colored red and black to satisfy to whole bike color.  The size of the two chain rings are 52 and 43 teeth, this will ensure that the user will not have to pedal too quickly and be able to use the pedal assist part of the motor effectively. The chain ring is made from Mild Steel due to its strength and efficiency by comparison to other materials, and the crank arms are made of Titanium which is recyclable as well as has the ability to handle a lots external pressure during rotation.

Figure 3.8: Final Rendering of the Handlebars, Carbon Fiber material type.

The design of the handlebars was designed in term of safety to reduce the user pain and make the user maintain its balance while ridding. The materials chosen for the handlebars was carbon fiber, which give the bike a light weight from the front to make it easier for the user he turns and switch between direction. One more feature which make this handlebar unique is that these handlebars are built with internal lighting system which allow the user to use them while ridding at night time and they turn on automatically when the sunset, to give the student a peace of mind.

Figure 3.9: final Rendering and visualizing  of the e-bike main spring.

The design decision, was concern about the student’s stability on the road, without forgetting heaps, hills and ground hole, which cause vibration, these vibration can be sometimes harmful for the body for the long term, to reduce these vibration, a big spring was placed to absorb all the external and internal vibration, in order to have a safe ride and comfier experience. This spring in the main part of the bike which is the middle of the frame which will cause a big gap if the spring was pulled out, so to save the spring from braking, bending, dilatation, the spring was made of Steel combinations are the most regularly utilized spring materials. The most well-known combinations incorporate high-carbon, for example, the music wire utilized for guitar strings.

Electrical bike Final Design:

Discussion

In this project, my team and I we tried to give out best, we spent many hours, not but many days researching, testing and evaluating certain designs that would best suit our design and the requirement that would serve the purchaser. However, while we were working we face couple of problems, and the major problem was communication. At the begging we did a lot of communication error, not understanding what the other workmate wants, but later on we had the ability to solve that problem. Some other minor problem was that only one person had the Solid Work, and all of us were living far away from the campus, so it was difficult to have access to solid work, moreover; we had very limited knowledge about how to use the solid work software. We had to know how to make certain bends, difficult angles, and certain shapes, also we had to assemble all of this parts. We overcame this problem by spending hours of trial and error and also going online and searching for online tutorials, watching videos. While working on this project we had to study our other lessons and do the other assignment. We were doing 4 units, we working and also we had our home lives. Managing our time was quite very challenging especially that the other 3 units were pretty hard. Which made things much worst, at the beginning we couldn’t agree much on everything, and wouldn’t commit on our project, in which we had to start little late. Which made this more challenging for us to do the lab report and our researches for the short time we have, and at the same time to do all the other assignment quizzes and lab reports. One of the other issues we had attending to the group meeting, since all of us were busy most of the time we were chatting by using social media rather than face to face.

In order to accomplish our report and the project we have to make a timeline that aimed to complete each part of the project. We did 3 main meetings, in these meetings we discussed about the parts of the project, we shared with each other the researching that we did, and also the thing that’s we should do, by deciding the due date of each task that we should complete. The hardest task to accomplish was the report itself, drawing and making the e-bike on the solid work, also deciding which materials to build the e-bikie. Even though this semester was quite challenging, we had to make a lot of assignment, we faced a lot of challenges in which we thought it was impossible to accomplish, we had the ability to do this project and complete with least mistakes as much as we can and minimal issues. We had the ability to do a e-bike which us proud and carry our name.

 Conclusion and Recommendations:

This E-bike in which we designed it, has the capability to do and perform more than the things that the user asks for. It’s a very practical, safe, functional, and its performance is on the top of the e-bikes, it has an outstanding performance, with an excellent quality and reliability, and also it has a strong and durable design. When we designed the bike, we made sure that its pleasing bike for the customer, with very comfortable driving comfortable, and smooth driving style by the help of the suspension and big wheels. Its design helps it to ride more pleasantly, since its light weight, the location of the motor, battery, and suspension helps, moreover; the LED lights and its location with help it drive any day of the time. By the help of the CAE force analysis, motion analysis and designing analysis we had the ability to modify our bike in a way that the user will use it for the Western Sydney Universities Smart campus, and it could be easily done because of all the funding that is taking place with a competitive price. Since we designed this bike with great quality’s and all the parts are on the top of their competition, we decided to give each bike a warranty for 3 years. In this warranty includes the warranty for the frame, motor, battery, brakes, pedals.

References:

AL-HADRAYI ZIADOON MOHAMMED RAHI (2016), Effect the stacking sequences of composite laminates under low velocity impact on failure modes by using carbon fiber reinforced polymer <http://www.theijes.com/papers/v5-i2/Version-2/H05202053060.pdf>

 Asian Development Bank. Electric bikes in the People’s Republic of China: impact on the environment and prospects for growth. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2009.<http://www.understandchinaenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Electric-Bikes-PRC-Impact-on-Environment-Prospects-Growth-2009.pdf>

 Sean Newman Oct 20, 2015, Knowing the difference : Pedal assist vs. throttle control <https://www.electropedal.com/blogs/blog/71989187-knowing-the-difference-pedal-assist-vs-throttle-control>

Average Joe Cyclist, 25/01/2016, Hub Motor vs Crank Drive Motor – Which is Better for an Electric Bike?<http://electricbikeblog.com/hub-motor-or-crank-drive-motor/>

Nicolas Gonzalez Garrido, 2013, Opel RAD e-Bike / KISKA for OPEL<http://designalmic.com/opel-rad-e-bike-kiska-for-opel/>

Tom Compton 2001, Wind resistance, rolling resistance, and gravity are forces acting on a rider. Power is needed to overcome these forces and move a rider at a given speed<http://www.analyticcycling.com/ForcesPower_Page.html>

RideOut Technologies LLC, RideOut™ Carbon Comfort Bike Seats<http://www.rideouttech.com/l/comfort.html>

Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd., DRIVE UNIT<https://global.yamaha-motor.com/business/e-bike-systems/pw-x/drive-unit/>

Martin Brown17, 2016, First Look: Yamaha PW-X eBike System 2017

<https://www.e-bikeshop.co.uk/blog/post/yamaha-pwx-ebike-system-2017/>

Appendices:

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